Rosa L.


Classical name.

Deciduous or evergreen shrubs and climbers. Stems erect, arching, scrambling or trailing, usually with prickles and sometimes with bristles. Leaves alternate, mostly compound with a terminal leaflet, occasionally simple or with 3 leaflets; margins toothed; stipules usually present and persistent, joined to the leaf stalk for most of its length. Flowers solitary or in flat-topped clusters, single to double. Sepals mostly 5, rarely 4, entire or with the outer ones lobed. Petals 5 when flowers single, rarely 4, often notched at the tip, white or cream to pink and purplish, red, orange and yellow. Stamens numerous. Carpels numerous, each containing a single ovule; styles free or united into a column. Fruit a red, orange or occasionally green or bluish to black hip (hep).

Sophie Adamson, Ron Bell, Ross Heathcote, Falk and Daniele Hannemann, Ian Huxley, John Nieuwesteeg, Roger Spencer & Philip Sutherland.

A botanically complex genus in need of revision.

Grown widely in shrubberies and as landscape plants, as well as for cut flowers in floristry.

Home gardeners generally use cuttings, while commercial nurserymen build up stock by budding and grafting on understock.

Blooms and petals are used for rose oil (notably Attar of Roses), perfumes, pot pourri, cosmetics, rosewater and conserves. Extracts of the rose hips are used medicinally and as a source of Vitamin C.

Leaves with stipules that are generally joined to the leaf stalk for most of its length.

SA: Mt Lofty Bot. Garden has species and old cultivars. David Ruston of Renmark has a collection of about 5000 cultivars, possibly the largest collection of cultivars in the southern hemisphere. The township of Golden Grove near Adelaide has a celebration Rose Festival each year. Ross Roses has a substantial collection. A newly landscaped Adelaide International Rose Garden was established in the year 2000 with more than 5000 roses planted over 1.5 ha. VIC: The OPCAA collection of Alister Clark roses is maintained by John Nieuwesteeg at Coldstream and a demonstration garden of Alister Clark roses is maintained at St Kilda Bot. Gds. The OPCAA collection of David Austin roses is held at 'Briars Roseraie',Mt Martha, and a further collection is held by Elaine Rushbrook at 'The Scented Garden', Croydon. The OPCAA collection of species and primary hybrids is held by Ian Huxley of 'Hilltop Rose Gds', Guildford. The Victoria State Rose Garden at Werribee Park Estate consists of about 4500 roses, mostly Hybrid Teas and Floribundas. At 'Stonnington' in Malvern, Deakin University established a collection of 19th century, mostly French roses in 1996. In Morwell there is a substantial rose garden developed by the Latrobe Council in conjunction with the Rose Society of Victoria. Philip Sutherland of Golden Vale Nsy, Benalla, has Australia's largest collection of Australian cultivars and a wide selection of old cultivars. Melbourne's Royal Bot. Gds maintains a collection demonstrating a range of species and cultivars important in the historical development of the modern rose. The Australian Inland Bot. Gds at Mildura has about 1600 plants, mostly Hybrid Teas and Floribundas. At Portland there is Ted Treloar's (Treloar Roses) garden. NSW: Sydney's Royal Bot. Gds has display collections.

100-150 species from temperate to subtropical northern hemisphere.

Fitch (1977), Bean (1980), Krüssmann (1981), Nottle (1983), Thomas (1974, 1983a, 1983b), Beales (1985), Harkness (1985),McCleod (1987), Phillips & Rix (1988), Garnett (1990), Swane (1992), many excellent Australian gardens are described and illustrated in Irvine (1997). Cultivars: Modern Roses 1-10, American Rose Society (world listing); Ackland (1999, listing of rose cultivars available in Australia). Journals: The Australian Rose Annual (National Rose Society of Australia), Victorian Rose News (Rose Society of Victoria), The Rose Breeder (newsletter of the Australian Rose Breeders' Association), Journal of Heritage Roses (Heritage Rose Association), American Rose Magazine (a monthly publication of the American Rose Society).

Roses have been cultivated for several thousand years and, in the northern hemisphere, are arguably the most popular garden plants. The term rosarium (pl. rosaria) is applied to gardens devoted entirely to roses. In the southern hemisphere, climate places some constraints on the range of kinds grown but they are, nevertheless, widely grown and some have been introduced or bred for the Australian climate. Volume rose production in Australia is based around several long-standing family businesses: Swane Bros Pty Ltd of NSW; Treloar Roses Pty Ltd and Brundrett & Sons (Roses) Pty Ltd of Vic; and Ross Roses Pty Ltd of SA.While Floribundas are popular in the northern hemisphere,most business in Australia is based around Hybrid Teas.

The literature on roses is vast and the reader is directed to accounts cited in the literature list above. General accounts of the rose - its history, classification, botany and horticulture, with descriptions and leads to further literature are given in Bean (1980) and Krüssmann (1981), while the history of the rose is given in Paterson (1983). A brief history of the rose in Australia is given in Hendry (1999).

There is little point in presenting a complex botanical system of classification here. The brief account below presents the main horticultural groupings of roses available in Australian nurseries. It should be noted that extensive hybridisation and selection, largely as a result of the introduction from China of the China roses and Tea roses, has resulted in over 20 000 cultivars and it is often extremely difficult to allocate a plant to a particular horticultural grouping, as the boundaries of the groups sometimes overlap. Additionally, the horticultural groups are based on overlapping criteria which makes placement difficult, e.g. breeder origin (Alister Clark); flower characteristics (Hybrid Perpetuals); flowering time and type (Recurrent, Non-recurrent); habit (Climber or Rambler).Attempts have been made by various authors (including the World Federation of Rose Societies in 1976) to present a uniform system. However, new developments and conventions soon arise that defy such attempts. The system adopted here is a compromise devised purely for convenience of presentation in this book.

Notes on names Roses, unfortunately, exhibit the many problems associated with the combined use of both scientific and marketing names. For their new cultivars, modern rose breeders in their breeding records often use code names consisting of letters and/or numbers.These code names are internationally unique and, under the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, constitute the true cultivar names which, by convention, are written within single quotes. Clearly these breeders' names have no commercial appeal. Breeders or suppliers may register more appealing names (often referred to as commercial names or commercial synonyms) either with a registration authority or through legal protection using Plant Breeder's Rights. As these are not the true cultivar names they do not carry the single quotes. Many of the David Austin roses fall into this category. Further, if cultivars are deliberately imported, the importer/grower may select a commercial name that is not the same as the name used in the country of supply: for this reason the same plant may have different commercial names in different countries. In addition, in some instances plants have become known under their trademarks rather than their true cultivar names.

A brief history of Australian breeders The earliest Australian-raised rose was probably 'Rev. T.C. Cole' commemorating Rev. Cole of Vic and released in 1880; it was a seedling of 'Chromatella' × 'Maréchal Niel' and, as the latter cultivar was a grandchild of the former, 'Rev. T.C. Cole' would be inbred and difficult to identify. Like many Australian cultivars, especially older ones, it is now considered extinct. The first prolific breeder of Australian roses was Alf Williams of Qld who released over 30 Teas, Polyanthas and Hybrid Teas between 1890 and 1913. None are known to have survived, with the possible exception of the Climbing Tea, ' Mrs Graham Hart'. Perhaps the most notable Australian breeder was Alister Clark from Vic who began breeding roses in about 1904, with his first release in 1912. He eventually released over 130 cultivars, the most important being hybrids of the climber R. gigantea, a large white rose showing the potential to bloom all year: it was from Burma and suited to Victorian conditions but too tender for much of Europe. Some of his notable cultivars include 'Lorraine Lee', 'Nancy Hayward' and 'Squatter's Dream'. He was awarded the Dean Hole Memorial Medal of the National Rose Society (UK) in 1936. Other Australian breeders of international acclaim include: John Williams of Qld, who produced a Tea rose called 'Penelope' (1906); Patrick Grant of NSW'Golden Dawn' (1929); and Eric Welsh of NSW, who produced most notably 'Tracey Wickham' and 'Wee Beth'. Mrs H. Fitzhardinge released 10 or so roses in the 1920s and 30s, 'Warrawee' and 'Lubra' remaining today. George Knight of NSWworked with Hybrid Teas and Polyanthas and regularly exported to the UK, Europe and the USA. In the 1950s to 1960s there was, from Qld, Leon Ulrick (Hybrid Teas and Polyanthas) and Fred Armbrust (Hybrid Teas); and from Vic Doug Toogood (Hybrid Teas exported to the UK). Frank Riethmuller of NSWis best known for his Polyanthas bred in the late 1950s, perhaps the most popular being 'Carabella'. The most prolific of Australian breeders since World War II was George Dawson of Vic, a retired market gardener who produced, among others, the Floribunda 'Imp', and Hybrid Teas 'Headline', 'Rae Dungan', 'Accolade', 'City of Benalla' and 'Melvena'. Des Fankhauser was internationally acclaimed and released 24 cultivars in the 1960s. Falk Hannemann of Mini Rose Nsy, Vic, has raised several Miniature roses. Ron Bell, who was instrumental in the foundation of the Australian Rose Breeders' Association, has produced a number of cultivars, his breeding program being based on Hybrid Teas of exhibition type. Recent contributors from Vic include Robert Hamilton (Hybrid Teas), Bill Allender (Hybrid Teas), Ian Huxley (heritage roses), John Nieuwesteeg (Hybrid Teas and Multifloras); from NSW, Kevin and Malcolm Keene (Hybrid Tea), C. Knight (Hybrid Tea), Marguerite Parks (Hybrid Teas) and Heather Rumsey (Miniatures). In WA there are George Melville (Hybrid Teas) and Mrs C. Ryan (Floribundas), and from Tas, Sister M. Xavier (Floribundas), R.Watson (Hybrid Teas) and Mrs Lilia Weatherly (shrub roses and 'Pink Iceberg'). Almost all of the rose breeding in Australia has been done by amateur growers, with the exception of some cut flower cultivars. There is an increasing number of Australian-raised cultivars appearing in specialist catalogues, and interest has increased with the formation of The Australian Rose Breeders' Association. Over 230 cultivars had been granted Plant Breeder's Rights to 1999. It is not possible to list all the cultivars available. The descriptions presented here are a selection of both Australian-bred and particularly popular or outstanding cultivars from overseas. The treatment follows a loosely chronological sequence, the older roses coming first.The outline diagram of the history and development of the rose by Ian Huxley should be consulted for a concise historical overview. For the identification of cultivars, readers should consult specialist rose growers and the listed literature. A good general selection of colour pictures useful for identification is given in Phillips & Rix (1988).

Old garden roses Of the following groups the Alba, Gallica and Damask roses can be regarded as ancient and mediaeval precursors of early cultivated roses prior to the introduction of new stock, mainly from China.

Source: Adamson, S.; Bell, R.; Heathcote, R.; Hannemann, D.; Hannemann, F.; Huxley, I.; Newesteeg, J.; Spencer, R.; Sutherland, P. (2002). Rosa. In: Spencer, R.. Horticultural Flora of South-eastern Australia. Volume 3. Flowering plants. Dicotyledons. Part 2. The identification of garden and cultivated plants. University of New South Wales Press.

Updated by: Roger Spencer, August 2017

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Alba roses

Several cultivars of R. ×alba date back to the ancients while others originated in the 19th century. They are upright shrubs to 2 m or so tall with large, scattered prickles and are believed to be descendants of R. canina. Leaves greyish blue, hard. Flowers mostly double, white to deep pink in summer. Examples available include 'Alba Maxima' and 'Maiden's Blush' which are two of the earliest cultivars in this group of about 60.

Rosa 'Alba Maxima'

Ancient rose chiefly of cottage gardens, possibly a sport of 'Alba Semiplena'. Tall shrub to 2 m tall, arching. Flowers prolific, double, blush pink at first, becoming creamy white, strongly fragrant.

Rosa 'Alba Semiplena'

Said to be the White Rose of York, a robust shrub with grey-green foliage. Flowers large, more or less single, milky white, with prominent stamens. Highly fragrant and cultivated commercially for the production of the perfume, Attar of Roses.

Rosa 'Madame Legras De Saint-germain'

Shrub to 2 m tall, sometimes grown as a climber. Flowers domed and with numerous petals, white with a hint of yellow. Probably originating as a cross with a Noisette. Fragrant. In cultivation since at least 1846.

Rosa 'Madame Plantier'

Mounding shrub or climber. Flowers pompon-like, creamy white, tinged with yellow at first, becoming white, centre of green stamens, sweetly fragrant. Probably originating as a cross with a Noisette. Bred and int. by Plantier, France, 1835.

Rosa 'Maiden'

S blush' Arching shrub. Flowers loosely double, pale pink, the petals paling and reflexing at the tips. Fragrant. Ancient rose in cultivation since at least the beginning of the 16th century.

Rosa 'Pompon Blanc Parfait'

Shrub to about 1 m tall with thin stems and small buds. Flowers clustered, small, pale lilac-pink, fading, slightly fragrant; late season. Int. 1876.

Alister Clark Roses

Produced by Australia's most prolific rose breeder (see introduction). The OPCAA collection of these roses is held by John Nieuwesteeg of Nieuwesteeg Roses and at Golden Vale Nsy in Vic. A biography of Alister Clark has been written by Garnett (1990).

Rosa 'Amy Johnson'

Flowers semi-double, pink. Hybrid Tea pillar with 'Souvenir de Gustav Prost' as one parent, 1931.

Rosa 'Baxter Beauty'

Flowers apricot yellow, fragrant. Hybrid Gigantea. Not officially a Clark rose but a sport of 'Lorraine Lee'.

Rosa 'Blackboy'

Flowers deep red, strongly fragrant. Climber. A cross between 'étoile de France' and 'Bardou Job', 1919.

Rosa 'Borderer'

Flowers double, pale pink and apricot, fragrant. Polyantha hybrid with 'Jersey Beauty' as a parent, 1918.

Rosa 'Countess Of Stradbroke'

Flowers double, red, recurrent. Hybrid Tea climber. Hybrid involving 'Walter c. Clarke',1928.

Rosa 'Gladsome'

Flowers single, pink, shrub sprawling. Climber, 1937.

Rosa 'Jessie Clark'

Flowers pale pink, single, large. Hybrid Gigantea. R. gigantea _ 'Madame Martigner', 1915. Commemorating Alister Clark's niece.

Rosa 'Lady Huntingfield'

Flowers golden yellow, double. Hybrid Tea. 'Busy Body' _ 'Aspirant Marcel Rosyn',1937.

Rosa 'Lorraine Lee'

Flowers semi-double, apricot-pink, fragrant, prolific. Hybrid Gigantea. 'Jessie Clark' _ 'Capitaine Millet', 1924. A climbing variant has flowers apricot-pink, semi-double, strongly scented. Hybrid Gigantea climber.a climbing sport of 'Lorraine Lee' released by McKay, 1932.

Rosa 'Marjory Palmer'

Flowers rose pink, fragrant, double with prominent stamens. Floribunda, with 'Jersey Beauty' as a parent, 1936.

Rosa 'Mary Guthrie'

Flowers deep pink, single, fragrant. Hybrid Tea. 'Jersey Beauty' _ 'Scorcher',1929.

Rosa 'Milkmaid'

Flowers creamy fawn, semi-double, with prominent stamens, strongly fragrant. Noisette Rambler. Parentage uncertain, 1927.

Rosa 'Mrs Fred Danks'

Flowers lilac-pink, semi-double, fragrant. Hybrid Tea, 1952.

Rosa 'Nancy Hayward'

Flowers pale red, single, prolific. Hybrid Gigantea climber. Originated as a seedling of 'Jessie Clark',1937.

Rosa 'Squatter'

S dream' Flowers large, yellow, single. Hybrid Gigantea, 1923.

Rosa 'Sunny South'

Flowers pale pink, semi-double, fragrant, prolific. Hybrid Tea. 'Gustav Grünewald' _ 'Betty Berkeley',1918.

Bourbon roses

A variable group said to have originated from a chance hybrid discovered in 1817 by Parisian botanist, Bréon, on the íle de Bourbon (now Réunion). The parents were possibly the Autumn Damask rose and a Pink China rose. Subsequent crossing of the original Bourbon has occurred with Gallica and Damask hybrids. The Bourbons grow rapidly, have more or less spherical blooms in summer and may bloom into autumn.

Rosa 'Bourbon Queen'

Shrub to 2 m tall sometimes grown as a climber. Flowers in clusters, fairly open with wrinkled petals, pink with darker veins, fading towards the edges, and with prominent stamens. Strongly fragrant. Raised by Mauget, France and int.1834.

Rosa 'Emily Rhodes'

Shrub or climber 3-5 m tall, with few prickles. Flowers recurrent, mid-pink, strongly scented. Raised by Alister Clark, bred from 'zÃĩphirine Drouhin', Australia,1937.

Rosa 'Great Western'

Shrub to 2 m tall. Flowers purplish crimson, large, double, strongly scented. Raised by Laffay, France, 1840.

Rosa 'Kathleen Harrop'

Flowers with pale pink petals, darker below. A sport of 'Zéphirine Drouhin'. Selected by Dickson, UK, 1919.

Rosa 'Louise Odier'

Shrub 1-2 m tall. Flowers recurrent, pink, shaded with lilac, longflowering, fragrant. Raised by Margottin, France, probably with a Noisette as a parent, int. 1851.

Rosa 'Madame Ernst Calvat'

Shrub to 2 m tall with bronze-coloured new growth. A sport of 'Madame Isaac Pereire' and similar in habit, flower type and fragrance but a paler pink, selected by v. Schwartz, France in 1888.

Rosa 'Madame Isaac Pereire'

Shrub to 2 m or so tall, also grown as a climber. Flowers large, quartered at first, the petal margins rolled back, deep pink shaded with magenta. Strongly scented. Raised GarÃĤon, France, 1881.

Rosa 'Madame Pierre Oger'

Narrow shrub 1-2 m tall. Flowers partly closed, pale creamy pink, becoming darker and sometimes mottled. Fragrant. A sport of 'Reine Victoria' selected by a. Oger, Caen, France in 1874 and int.Verdier in 1878.

Rosa 'Martha'

Climbing shrub to 5 m tall. Flowers like 'Kathleen Harrop' but paler pink and with a cream centre. A sport of 'zÃĩphirine Drouhin' selected by Zeiner, France, 1912.

Rosa 'Mrs Paul'

Shrub 1-2 m tall. Flowers white flushed pink, strongly scented. Probably a selection of 'Madame Isaac Pereire' raised by g. Paul, uk, and int. Paul and Sons, 1891.

Rosa 'Souvenir De La Malmaison'

Shrub to 1 m tall or climber. Flowers pale pink, becoming paler with age, cup-shaped, becoming flat and quartered, pleasantly scented, repeat-flowering. Commemorating Empress Josephine's garden at Malmaison. Raised j. Beluze, France in 1843.

Rosa 'Souvenir De Saint Anne'

S' Shrub to 2 m or so tall. Flowers more or less single, pale pink, strongly scented. Selection of 'Souvenir de la Malmaison' arising in Lady Ardilaun's Garden, Dublin, Ireland. Int. 1950 by g.s. Thomas.

Rosa 'Variegata Di Bologna'

Shrub 1-2 m tall or climber. Flowers white, double, cupped, striped reddish purple, quartered, strongly fragrant. Raised a. Bonfiglione, Italy, 1909.

Rosa 'Zigeunerknabe'

Shrub 2-3 m tall, thorny. Flowers semi-double, cupped at first, becoming flat, reddish purple with a white eye, unscented.a seedling selection of 'Russelliana' with other parent(s) unknown. Raised by Lambert, Germany, and int. 1909.

Boursault roses

These are thought to be hybrids between the Hybrid China Tea roses and, probably, R. pendulina, R. majalis, R. blanda or related species. R. blanda has been used to breed thornless roses. The main features of the group are the arching habit, the early, slightly fragrant flowers, and stems with distinctive deep red bark that is devoid of prickles.

Rosa 'Amadis'

Thornless rambling bush to 5 m tall. Flowers semi-double, cup-shaped, reddish purple with a few white streaks. Scentless. Raised by Laffay, France, 1829.

Rosa 'Morlettii'

Bush to 3 m tall. Flowers pink, double. Probably a r. pendulina hybrid raised by Morlet, France, in 1883.

Burnet or Scotch roses

Hybrids and cultivars based on R. pimpinellifolia with many cultivars derived in the mid-19th century.They are extremely prickly, suckering shrubs with small leaves.The flowers are single, semi-double or double in white to pink and maroon; a few are yellow and most are sweetly scented. In the 1930s, German rose breeder Wilhelm Kordes introduced a series of very successful shrub roses, all with the prefix 'Frühlings - ' (Spring).

Rosa 'Irish Marbled'

Low shrub to 1m tall. Flowers small, deep pink with paler reverse, semi-double. Hips dark. Origin unknown, probably pre-1900. ['Irish Rich Marbled']

Rosa 'Maigold'

Vigorous, thorny climbing rose sometimes grown as a shrub. Flowers semi-double, coppery yellow, stamens golden. Early flowering. Raised by w. Kordes, Germany, as a cross between 'Poulsen's Pink' and 'Frühlingstag',1953.

Rosa 'Single Cherry'

Shrub to about 1 m tall. Flowers small, pink, the petals pale below, stamens prominent. Recurrent-flowering, origin unknown.

Rosa 'Stanwell Perpetual'

Buds cupped, pink opening to flat, semi-double blooms with quilled petals and a button eye. Repeat-flowering. Probably a hybrid between a Burnet Rose and an Autumn Damask. Discovered in Essex, uk, by nurseryman, Lee, and int. 1838.

Rosa 'Suzanne'

Shrub to about 1 m tall. Blooms double, pale to salmon pink, recurrent. Bred by Skinner, Canada, 1948.

Rosa 'William Iii'

Small bush less than 1 m tall. Flowers semi-double, purplish red, fading to lavender, paler reverse. Origin unknown, probably pre-1900.

China roses

A range of evergreen hybrids and cultivars based on R. chinensis (itself possibly in cultivation for thousands of years in Asia) believed to have originated from 4 original cultivars imported to Europe in the 1790s - 'Slater's Crimson', 'Parson's Pink', 'Hume's Blush' and 'Park's Yellow'. They are small plants 1-2 m tall, sometimes with a few red prickles, producing relatively small single, semi-double or double flowers over a long flowering season, mostly pink but sometimes crimson or reddish orange; usually unscented. The leaves are dark green.

Rosa 'Arethusa'

Shrub 1-2 m tall. Flowers double, asymmetrical, apricot-yellow. Raised by William Paul, uk, int. 1903.

Rosa 'Beauty Of Glenhurst'

Shrub 1-2 m tall with few prickles. Flowers single, cerise. Raised by Morley, Mt Lofty Bot. Garden, sa, 1983.

Rosa 'Duke Of York'

Shrub 1-2 m tall. Flowers double, pink with dark pink and white tints. Raised by w. Paul,uk,1894.

Rosa 'Gloire Des Rosomanes'

Shrub to 1 m or so tall. Flowers in clusters, double, crimson, repeat-flowering, fragrant. A China-Bourbon hybrid raised by Vibert, France, 1825.

Rosa 'Hermosa'

Shrub to about 1 m tall, sometimes climbing, with blue-green leaves. Flowers small, almost spherical, mauve-pink, fragrant, repeat-flowering. A China raised by Marecheseau, France, 1837, int. 1840.

Rosa 'Louis Xiv'

Small shrub to 1m tall. Flowers dark red, strongly scented.

Rosa 'Mutabilis'

Shrub to about 2 m tall. Young shoots and leaves coppery red. Flowers single, petals yellow, changing to salmon and then red with an orange reverse. A China rose first noticed about 1896.

Rosa 'Perle D'

Or' Shrub to about 1 m tall. Flowers in clusters, pale brown to apricot, darkening towards the centre and suffused with pink when opening and fading to cream, fragrant. Raised, probably as a cross between a Polyantha and the Tea 'Madame Falcot' by Rambaud, France, 1883.

Rosa 'Sophie'

S perpetual' Shrub to 2 m tall sometimes grown as a climber. Flowers small and cupped, deep pink. An old hybrid garden rose reintroduced in 1960.

Rosa 'Viridiflora'

A freak flower in which the petals have been lost and are replaced by a clusters of sepals that look like a green flower. Probably a sport of 'Pallida' and grown as a curiosity plant.

Rosa 'Windlass'

Flowers single, pink on a thornless bush. Raised by Philip Sutherland, Benalla,Vic, 1996.


Climbing species roses were few in Europe, the most popular being the Musk Rose. This changed with the importation of new species under colonial expansion, an alltime favourite being the Banksia Rose. Modern climbing roses were the result of hybridisation with existing garden groups to produce hybrid roses with large flowers, long, lax stems and generally repeat-flowering. Many have originated as sports of Hybrid Tea roses, Floribundas and others. Long shoots are produced each year from the base and the next year these carry flower clusters along their length. They are often taller and more spreading than their bushy counterparts, for example Peace and Peace Climbing. Some shrubs are split off as pillar roses or are known as climbing sports - Hybrid Teas that have spreading and flowering sideshoots. The group is sometimes split into recurrent and non-recurrent flowering types.

Rosa 'Alchymist'

Foliage dark green to coppery, stems thorny. Flowers early, nonrecurrent, dense double, quartered, yellow and orange, strongly fragrant. 'Golden Glow' _ r. rubiginosa hybrid, raised by Kordes, Germany, in 1956.

Rosa 'Altissimo'

Foliage dark green. Flowers single, velvety, dark red with crimson and yellow stamens, recurrent-flowering. 'Tenor' _ unknown, a Floribunda raised by Delbard-Chabert, France, in 1966.

Rosa 'Amy Johnson'

Flowers cupped, large, double, pink, yellow at the base, fragrant. Raised Alister Clark, Australia, 1931.

Rosa 'Aschermittwoch'

Foliage pale green. Flowers double, greyish, buff or white. R. rubiginosa hybrid raised by w. Kordes, Germany, 1955.

Rosa 'Birthday Present'

Foliage dark green. Flowers double, dark red, fragrant. 'GuinÃĩe' _ 'Rouge Mallerin', raised by Doug Toogood, Australia, 1950.

Rosa 'Black Boy'

Open shrub with thin lanky stems. Flowers double, deep red, fragrant. Raised Alister Clark, Australia, 1918.

Rosa 'Blossomtime'

Pillar shrub. Flowers double, pink, fragrant. Raised by o'Neal, usa, 1951.

Rosa 'Blue Moon'

Flowers double, mauve, the bud long-pointed. Climbing form by f. Mungia, usa, 1981.

Rosa 'Countess Of Stradbroke'

Leaves grey-green. Flowers double, dark red, recurrent. Raised Alister Clark, Australia, 1950.

Rosa 'Courier'

Flowers creamy pink, double, early and non-recurrent. Raised Alister Clark, 1930.

Rosa 'Dearest'

Leaves dark green. Flowers large, double, pink with pronounced yellow stamens. Climbing form of the bush selected by d. Rusten, 1970.

Rosa 'Gold Bunny'

Flowers double, large, golden yellow in clusters. Climbing sport selected by Meilland, France, 1986.

Rosa 'Golden Showers'

Flowers double, golden yellow, becoming cream, long-flowering. 'Charlotte Armstrong' _ 'Captain Thomas', raised Lammerts, usa,1956.

Rosa 'Handel'

Flowers large, semi-double, cupped at first, white with pinkish edgings enlarging with age. 'Columbine' _ 'Heidelberg' raised McGredy, n Ireland, 1956.

Rosa 'Iceberg'

Flowers semi-double, pure white, prolific over a long flowering season, very popular. 'Robin Hood' _ 'Virgo', raised by Kordes, Germany,1958.

Rosa 'Lady Hillingdon'

Wood purplish, foliage dark green. Flowers deep yellow with a hint of orange, semi-double, fragrant.a climbing form of 'Lady Hillingdon' raised by Hicks, uk, 1917.

Rosa 'Madame Abel Chatenay'

Flowers double, pale with darker centre and reverse, strongly fragrant. Found by Page, uk, and int. 1917, the bush form raised by Pernet-Ducher, France, 1895.

Rosa 'Madame Gregoire Staechelin'

Flowers large, pink, semi-double, non-recurrent, strongly fragrant. Hips yellow, pear-shaped. Raised p. Dot, Spain,1927.

Rosa 'Margaret Turnbull'

Pillar growth. Flowers large, double, cupped, pale pink, yellow at the base. Raised Alister Clark, Australia, 1931.

Rosa 'Missmarionmanifold'

Flowers deep red to purplish red, recurrent. Raised by w. Jack Adamson, Camperdown, Vic.

Rosa 'Peace'

Possibly the most popular rose of all time and important in the development of the Hybrid Teas. Flowers are double, cupped, single on the stems and slightly fragrant, the petals edged with pink and gradually changing to a paler yellow and deeper red. The Peace shrub was raised by Meilland, France, with pollination in June 1935 and budding in 1936. Peace is a commercial name (it is not the true cultivar name and therefore not written in single quotes) used for its introduction in the usa by Conard-Pyle in 1945 at the end of World War ii. The true ancestry is debated but often listed as ('George Dixon'_'Souvenir de Claudius Pernet') _ (['Joanna Hill' _ 'Charles p. Kilham'] _ 'Margaret McGredy'). The true botanical name appears to be 'Madame a.Meilland', the name given upon release in France in 1942. The climber is a sport of Peace raised by Brady in 1950.

Rosa 'Shot Silk'

Flowers large, double, bright pink with lemon, fragrant. Hybrid Tea. Sport of a non-Australian bush selected by c. Knight of nsw.

Rosa 'Titian'

Pillar rose to about 3 m tall. Flowers in clusters, large, tight double, prolific pink to reddish pink. Raised Frank Reithmueller, Australia, 1950.

Rosa 'Water Music'

Pillar rose to about 3 m tall with dark green glossy leaves. Flowers deep pink, petals dark-edged and whitish towards the centre, recurrent. Raised from 'Handel' by Ron Bell, Australia, 1982.

English roses

Generally known as David Austin Roses, this group combines the many-petalled flower forms and attractive scents of the old roses with the appealing colours and repeat flowering of the modern Floribundas and Hybrid Teas - as well as some disease resistance. The flower form is mostly semi-double to cup-shaped and rosette although there are some singles.Most names in this group are commercial synonyms. David Austin (1926- ) is a leading English rosarian with a nursery in Shropshire.Many of these roses have been granted PBR status.

A ABRAHAM DARBY Flowers large, cupped, petals loose, folding inwards in the centre, peach above, yellow below, paling with age, highly fragrant, recurrent. 'Yellow Cushion' _ 'Aloha'. Raised Austin, UK,1985. ['Auscot'] PVR 7(2)29

AMBRIDGE ROSE Shrub to nearly 1 m tall. Flowers medium, cupped, pale apricot, darkening towards the centre. Charles Austin _ seedling, raised by David Austin in 1990.

CHARLES AUSTIN Shrub 1-2 m tall. Flowers double, with outer petals white, suffused pink, inner ones buff. Chaucer _ 'Aloha' raised by David Austin in 1973.

CHAUCER Shrub to about 1 m tall. Flowers cupped, pale pink darkening towards the centre, fragrant. 'Duchesse de Montebello' _ Constance Spry, raised by David Austin in 1970.

CONSTANCE SPRY Arching shrub sometimes grown as a climber. Flowers pale pink with a darker centre, cupped, prolific over a short season. The first of the English roses raised by David Austin in 1961 as a cross between the Gallica 'Belle Isis' and the Floribunda 'Dainty Maid'. Unlike other David Austin roses this flowers in spring and does not repeat.

CYMBELINE Shrub over 1 m tall. Flowers grey-pink with brown, fragrant. Parentage unknown. Raised by David Austin in 1982.

ENGLISH GARDEN Shrub to 1 m tall. Flowers pale yellow with many neatly arranged petals, the colour darkening towards the centre, fragrant. (Lilian Austin _ seedling) _ ('Iceberg' _Wife of Bath), raised by David Austin in 1986.

A EVELYN Flowers large, shallow-cupped, apricot and yellow with a strong fragrance. ['Aussaucer'] PVJ 11(1)64.

A GERTRUDE JEKYLL Flowers dark pink to near-red, of many petals that form neat rosettes with a powerful Damask fragrance. Wife of Bath _ 'Comte de Chambord', raised by David Austin in 1986. ['Ausbord'] PVJ 9(2)61.

A GOLDEN CELEBRATION Flowers large, deeply cupped, dark golden yellow, extremely fragrant. May be used as a climber. Origin unlocated. ['Ausgold'] PVJ 11(1)64.

GRAHAM THOMAS Flowers cupped, dark yellow with a touch of apricot at first, fragrant. Charles Austin _ ('Iceberg' _ unknown). Raised by David Austin, UK, 1983.

A HERITAGE Shrub to about 1 m tall. Flowers cupped, yellow-pink with a darker centre, flowering over a long season and with a lemon scent. Raised by David Austin in 1984 as a seedling _ 'Iceberg' seedling. ['Ausblush'] PVJ 7(2)29.

LEANDER Flowers small, double, in large clusters, the petals in a fan-like formation, deep apricot, fruity fragrance. Origin unlocated.

LUCETTA Shrub 1-2 m tall with arching branches. Flowers exceptionally large, flat, semi-double, pale pink, fading with age; central stamens prominent, fragrant. Parentage unknown. Raised by David Austin, 1983.

OTHELLO Thorny shrub to 1 m or more tall. Flowers large, cupped, with numerous petals. Colour variable from deep crimson to red with purplish tones or paler, fragrant. Lilian Austin _ The Squire, raised by David Austin, 1986.

A SAINT CECILIA Shrub. Flowers well-spaced, appearing in succession, pale apricot, cupped, fragrant. A seedling selection of Wife of Bath, Austin, UK, 1989. ['Ausmit'] PVJ 8(3)52.

A THE DARK LADY Flowers deep red, with the petals well spaced, fragrant. Origin unlocated. ['Ausbloom'] PVJ 10(2)58.

THE SQUIRE Open, rather weak shrub to about 1 m tall. Flowers large, cupped, exceptionally rich dark crimson.The Knight _'ChÃĢteau de Clos-Vougeot'. Raised by David Austin, 1977.

WIFE OF BATH Twiggy shrub to 1 m tall. Flowers medium, pink, paling towards the edges when fully open, strongly fragrant. 'Madame Caroline Testout' _ ('Ma Perkins' _ Constance Spry). Raised by David Austin, 1969.

WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL Flowers white, pale brown centre with age. A sport of 'Mary Rose'. Raised by David Austin, UK, 1988.

YELLOW CHARLES AUSTIN A sport of Charles Austin with pale yellow flowers.

Rosa 'Yellow Button'

Low shrub. Flowers quartered in various shades of yellow, strongly fragrant.Wife of Bath _ 'Chinatown'. Raised by David Austin, uk, 1975.

Floribunda roses

These were originally raised as a cross between Dwarf Polyanthas and Hybrid Teas by the Dane, Svend Poulsen, in the early 1920s. He raised 'Else Poulsen', pink, and 'Kirsten Poulsen', red,which produced continual clusters of more or less single blooms.These and other cultivars were further crossed with Hybrid Teas to produce the modern Floribundas.These are generally pruned to be late-flowering bedding roses.

Rosa 'Annie'

S song' Flowers clustered, double pink to orange. 'Granada' _ 'Kordes Perfecta', raised by Ian Spriggs of Vic, 1990.

Rosa 'Bendigold'

Flowers double, orange-red to tan and burnished gold, fragrant. 'Redgold' _ 'Rumba', raised j. Marley, Australia, 1979.

Rosa 'Betty Prior'

Flowers in clusters, single, bright pink, fragrant. Seedling of 'Kirsten Poulsen', raised by Prior, England,1935.

Rosa 'Edelweiss'

Low bush. Flowers in clusters, double, pure white. Raised Poulsen, Denmark, 1970.

Rosa 'Europeana'

Flowers in clusters, double, dark red. 'Rosemary Rose' _ 'Ruth Leuwerk', raised by de Ruiter, Holland.

Rosa 'Evelyn Fison'

Flowers in large clusters, double, scarlet. 'Korona' _ 'Moulin Rouge', raised by McGredy, n Ireland.

Rosa 'French Lace'

Flowers double, high-pointed, white tinged apricot. 'Bridal Pink' _ 'Doctor Verhage', raised by Warriner.

Rosa 'Friesia'

Low bush. Flowers double, golden yellow, strongly fragrant. Unknown seedling crossed with 'Spanish Sun'. Raised by Kordes, Germany,1977.

Rosa 'Gold Bunny'

Flowers large, double, golden yellow. 'Poppy Flash' _ ('Charleston' _ 'Allgold'), raised Paolino, France, 1978.

Rosa 'Iced Parfait'

Flowers pale pink, double, fragrant on a low bush. Raised by Sister m. Xavier of Tas, 1982.

Rosa 'Imp'

Flowers white, edged pink to red, flattish. Raised in Australia by George Dawson, 1970.

Rosa 'In The Pink'

Flowers double, pale pink on a compact bush. Raised by Mrs c. Ryan of wa, 1988. Has been exported to the uk and usa.

Rosa 'Lavender Pinocchio'

Low bush. Flowers large, lavender to brown. 'Grey Pearl' _ 'Pinocchio', raised by Boerner, usa.

Rosa 'Ma Perkins'

Flowers semi-double, coral pink to peach. Raised by Boerner, usa, 1952.

Rosa 'Marjorie Palmer'

Low, spreading shrub. Flowers double, flat, bright pink. A hybrid with 'Jersey Beauty' as a parent. Raised by Alister Clark, Australia, 1936.

Rosa 'Mary Guthrie'

Flowers in large clusters, single, pink with prominent yellow stamens. 'Jersey Beauty' _ 'Scorcher'.

Rosa 'Masquerade'

Flowers semi-double, yellow to orange-pink and red.

Gallica roses

These are hybrids and cultivars based on the upright, suckering R. gallica cultivated since ancient times, but most originated from breeding in the 19th century and are derived from open pollinated plants. They thus show the influence of a number of other groups, notably the more spreading and arching habits of the Damask and Centifolia roses. Shrubs mostly to 1 m or so tall. There are a few small prickles and the strongly scented flowers, which appear once in spring to early summer, are mostly double and rarely white.

Rosa 'Belle Isis'

Foliage greyish. Flowers double, flat, delicate pale pink, strongly scented. Parentage unknown, raised Parmentier, Belgium, 1845.

Rosa 'Cardinal De Richelieu'

Stems almost thornless. Leaflets dark green. Flowers in clusters, deep purple, velvety, strongly scented. Parentage unknown, raised by Laffay, France, 1840.

Rosa 'Charles De Mills'

Flowers purple and deep red, generally quartered and with a green centre. An old cultivar from the Roseraie de l'Hay collection. Raised Laffay, France, 1840.

Rosa 'Complicata'

Arching shrub. Flowers bright pink with pale centre, stamens yellow. Parentage and origin unknown. May be grown as a climber.

Rosa 'Duchesse De Montebello'

Flowers small, pale pink, strongly scented. Parentage unknown, raised Laffay, France, 1829.

Rosa 'Gloire De France'

Flowers prolific, double, pale pink with deeper centres, fading. Parentage unknown, but raised c. 1819.

Rosa 'James Mason'

Flowers single to semi-double, prolific, crimson with yellow stamens, fragrant. 'Scharlachglut' _ 'Tuscany Superb' raised by Beales, uk, 1982.

Rosa 'Jenny Duval'

Flowers mauve, double, fragrant. Parentage unknown, raised in mid- 18th century, int. 1821.

Rosa 'Oeillet Flamand'

Flowers double, pale pinkish white with deeper pink striping. Parentage unknown, raised Vibert, France, 1845.

Rosa 'Officinalis'

, Apothecary's Rose (Red Rose of Lancaster). Small shrub with semi-double, crimson, highly fragrant flowers. [var. officinalis]

Rosa 'Robert Le Diable'

Growth spreading and spindly. Flowers double, pinkish purple, fragrant. Origin unknown, probably France, c. 1831.

Rosa 'Rosamundi'

See r. gallica.

Rosa 'Sissinghurst Castle'

An old, thin-stemmed, almost thornless cultivar discovered at Sissinghurst, uk, and reintroduced in 1947. Flowers semi-double, petals deep maroon but paler at the edges and below with golden yellow stamens, fragrant. Parentage and origin unknown.

Rosa 'Tuscany Superb'

Flowers semi-double, velvety, with yellow central boss of stamens, strongly scented. Sport of 'Tuscany' selected by Paul, uk, 1848.

Rosa 'Versicolor'

, Rosa Mundi Rose. Of uncertain origin, possibly a sport of 'Officinalis', the Apothecary's Rose, with flowers striped and spotted white, pink and red. ['Rosa Mundi'] Not to be confused with r. _damascena f. versicolor.

Groundcover or carpet roses

Exceptionally low groundcovers that root as they spread, forming dense cushions; useful for trailing over embankments, rockeries and for underplanting and rarely exceeding 40 cm tall. The German breeder Kordes has contributed many new cultivars to this group. Treloar Roses is the Australian agent.

Rosa 'Immensee'

A dwarf groundcover shrub. Flowers single, white, suffused with pink, strongly fragrant and with stamens a prominent yellow at first. Raised by Kordes, Germany, in 1982. 'The Fairy' _ r. wichuraiana seedling.

Rosa 'Orange Cascade'

Shrub with small ferny foliage. Flowers orange, semi-double and flowering erratically. Raised as an unknown seedling crossed with 'Magic Wand' by r.s. Moore, 1979.

Rosa 'Red Cascade'

Spreading shrub with arching branches. Flowers prolific and in clusters, small, deep red, double, cupped. (r. wichuraiana _ 'Floradora') _ 'Magic Dragon' raised by r.s. Moore, 1976.

Rosa 'Sea Foam'

Trailing bushy shrub to 1m or so tall with glossy foliage. Flowers profuse in clusters over a long season, double, creamy white, fragrant, long-flowering. (['White Dawn' _ 'Pinocchio'] _ ('White Dawn' _ 'Pinocchio')] _ ('White Dawn' _ 'Pinocchio'), raised Schwartz, 1964.

Hybrid Musk

Simple cottage garden roses raised by Rev. J. Pemberton of Romford, Essex, UK. These roses were based largely on the cultivar, 'Trier', which had Hybrid Tea, R. multiflora, R. moschata and Noisette in its parentage. The flowers are produced in clusters that continue over a long period.

Rosa 'Autumn Delight'

Shrubs almost thornless. Flowers in large clusters, semi-double, pale buff yellow from darker coloured buds. Parentage unknown, raised Bentall, uk, 1933.

Rosa 'Bishop Darlington'

Flowers semi-double, cream to pink, yellow in the centre, strongly fragrant. 'Aviateur Blériot' × 'Moonlight', raised Thomas, USA,1926.

Rosa 'Bloomfield Dainty'

Upright shrub. Flowers in clusters, single, yellow, fragrant. 'Danaë' _ 'Madame Edouard Herriot', raised by Thomas, usa,1924.

Rosa 'Buff Beauty'

Flowers in large clusters, double, flat, cupped, pale buff to apricot or pale yellow, strongly scented. Origin uncertain, possibly Pemberton, 1939.

Rosa 'Cornelia'

Foliage coppery. Flowers in large clusters, double, mixed shades of pale pink. Parentage unknown. Raised Pemberton, uk, 1925.

Rosa 'Felicia'

Flowers double, pink with orange tones, fading with age. 'Trier'_'Ophelia', raised Pemberton, uk, 1928.

Rosa 'Francesca'

Flowers semi-double, apricot-yellow, slightly darker in the centre. 'Danaë' _ 'Sunburst', raised Pemberton, uk, 1928.

Rosa 'Menja'

Spreading shrub. Flowers in large clusters, small, single, pink with paler tints. Hips in profusion. Raised Petersen, Denmark, 1960.

Rosa 'Moonlight'

Flowers more or less single, creamy white, with a prominent boss of yellow stamens, fragrant. 'Trier' _ 'Sulphurea', raised Pemberton, uk, 1913.

Rosa 'Pax'

Flowers in clusters on arching stems, large, semi-double, cream to white, with prominent yellow stamens. 'Trier'_'Sunburst', raised Pemberton,uk,1918.

Rosa 'Prosperity'

Flowers in large clusters, double, creamy white. 'Marie-Jeanne' _ 'Perle de Jardins', raised Pemberton, uk, 1919.

Rosa 'Sadler'

S wells' Flowers in clusters, semi-double, petals whitish at the base inside, darkening with shades of pinkish red, especially along the margins, longflowering. 'Penelope' _ 'Rose Gaujard', raised Beales, uk, 1983.

Rosa 'Sally Holmes'

Large shrub. Flowers in large clusters, large, single, white. 'Ivory Fashion' _ 'Ballerina'. Raised Holmes, uk,1956.

Rosa 'Thisbe'

Flowers in large clusters, semi-double, straw yellow. Sport of 'Daphne' selected by Pemberton, uk, 1918.

Rosa 'Vanity'

Flowers in prolific, dense clusters, more or less single, pinkish, fragrant. 'ChÃĢteau de Clos Vougeot' _ seedling raised by Pemberton, uk, 1920.

Hybrid perpetual roses

This group was extremely popular in the late 19th century. In 1816 a seedling was raised from the cultivar 'Portlandica' and named 'Rose du Roi'. 'Rose du Roi' was then hybridised with Hybrid Chinas (Gallica × China rose) and Bourbons to produce the Hybrid Perpetuals. They are generally fast growing and prickly with dark green leaves. They are tall bushes, producing large clusters of mostly pink, white or occasionally crimson or mauve flowers.

Rosa 'Archiduchesse Elisabeth D'

Autriche' Flowers double, flat, pink, fragrant. Raised by Moreau-Robert, France, 1881.

Rosa 'Baron Girod De L'

Ain' Flowers double, crimson, cup-shaped, edges wavy-ragged with fine white edging. Sport of 'EugÃĬne fürst' selected by Reverchon, France, in 1897.

Rosa 'Duke Of Edinburgh'

Flowers semi-double, scarlet, fragrant. 'gÃĩnÃĩral Jacqueminot' _ unknown, raised by Paul, uk, 1868.

Rosa 'Empereur Du Maroc'

Flowers in large clusters, double, flat, crimson suffused with maroon. 'gÃĩant de Bataille' seedling selected by Guinoisseau, France,1858.

Rosa 'Ferdinand Pichard'

Flowers deep carmine, striped white, cup-shaped, scented. Parentage unknown, raised Tanne, France, 1921.

Rosa 'Fisher Holmes'

Flowers double, crimson, scented. 'Maurice Bernardin' seedling selection by Verdier, France, 1865.

Rosa 'Frau Karl Druschki'

Flowers white, almost spherical and with raised centres. 'Merveille de Lyon'_'Madame Caroline Testout', raised by p. Lambert, Germany, 1901.

Rosa 'Gloire De Ducher'

Leaves grey-green. Flowers large, double, deep pinkish red. Parentage unknown, raised Ducher, France, 1865.

Rosa 'Gloire Lyonnaise'

Stems with few thorns. Flowers semi-double, creamy white, flat, fragrant. 'Baroness Rothschild' _ 'Madame Falcot', raised Guillot fils, France, 1885.

Rosa 'John Hopper'

Flowers large, pink and lilac with darker centre. 'Jules Margottin' _ 'Madame Vidot', raised Ward, uk,1862.

Rosa 'La Reine'

Flowers rounded, with raised central petals, cupped, pale pink with a hint of lilac. Parentage unknown, raised Laffay, France, 1842.

Rosa 'Mrs John Laing'

Leaves grey-green. Flowers pale pink, strongly scented. 'FranÃĤois Michelon' seedling selected by Henry Bennett, uk, 1887.

Rosa 'Paul Ricault'

Shrub thorny. Flowers large, double, flat, quartered. Parentage unknown, raised Portemer, France, 1845.

Rosa 'Roger Lambelin'

Flowers double, crimson to maroon with white striping, particularly on the petal margins. 'Fisher Holmes' sport selected by Schwartz, France, 1890.

Rosa 'Souvenir D'

Alphonse lavallÉe' Flower double, shaded crimson and purple, strongly fragrant. Parentage unknown, raised Verdier, France, 1884.

Rosa 'Sydonie'

Flowers double, quartered, mid-pink, strongly fragrant. Raised Dorisy, France, 1846.

Rosa 'Vick'

S caprice' Flowers large, cupped, with raised central petals, pink, lilac and white with stripes and mottling in deeper shades. 'Archiduchesse Elisabeth d'Autriche' sport selected by Vick, usa, 1891.

Hybrid tea roses

Together with the Floribundas the Hybrid Teas are the most commonly cultivated roses of the 20th century.This group arose as a result of breeding directed at larger, more colourful and shapely flowers produced over a flowering season extending through summer and autumn. They are mostly bedding plants with leaves that are often large and glossy. 'La France', raised in 1867, is generally believed to be the first Hybrid Tea but there were many other crosses between Teas and Hybrid Perpetuals, later including yellow flowers and possible disease resistance. R. ×odorata, Tea Rose, is generally considered the basis of this group. In Australia Ron Bell and George Dawson have introduced a number of new cultivars. Another group, introduced by Pernet-Ducher, originated from R. foetida 'Persiana' and a Hybrid Tea. These influential Pernetianas are now classified as Hybrid Teas.

Rosa 'Accolade'

Flowers double red, fragrant. Raised in Australia by George Dawson, 1979.

Rosa 'April Hamer'

Flowers silvery to rose pink, becoming darker with age. 'Mount Shasta' _ 'Prima Ballerina'. Raised in Australia by Ron Bell, 1983.

Rosa 'Camp David'

Flowers velvety deep red, the buds pointed, fragrant. Raised by Tantan, Germany, 1984.

Rosa 'Carole Joy'

Flowers large, red, slightly fragrant. Hybrid Tea. Raised by Bill Allender, Vic, 1991.

Rosa 'Chicago Peace'

Flowers double, pink on yellow. A reverse sport of Peace. Raised by Johnston, usa, 1962.

Rosa 'Cicely Lascelles'

Pillar growth. Flowers large, semi-double, bright pink. Raised Alister Clark, Australia, 1932.

Rosa 'City Of Benalla'

Flowers double, deep pink. 'Extravaganza' _ 'My Choice'. Raised in Australia by George Dawson, 1983.

Rosa 'Comtesse Vandal'

Flowers with pointed buds, large, double, pink with salmon and yellow. Raised by Leenders, Holland.

Rosa 'Crimson Glory'

Flowers large, double, crimson, highly fragrant. Raised by Kordes, Germany, 1935.

Rosa 'Double Delight'

Flowers with pointed buds, red on white ground. Raised in the usa, 1977.

Rosa 'Elizabeth Fankhauser'

Flowers large, soft pink, fragrant. Raised Fankhauser, Australia, 1965.

Rosa 'Headline'

Flowers orange in bud, opening to yellow suffused with carmine, fragrant. Raised George Dawson, Australia, 1978.

Rosa 'Janette Murray'

Flowers apricot-pink, double, on long stems. ('Daily Sketch' _ unknown) _ 'Montezuma'. Raised in Australia by Ron Bell, 1985.

Rosa 'Jenny Brown'

Flower single, dusky pink with prominent stamens. 'Dainty Bess'_ ('Dorothy Peach' _ 'Pink Favourite'). Raised by Mrs Marguerite Parks, nsw, 1975.

Rosa 'Josephine Bruce'

Flowers double, dark red, rather flat.

Rosa 'Julia'

S rose' Flowers medium to large, double, coffee-coloured.

Rosa 'Just Joey'

Flowers large, petals wavy-edged, copper to buff, fragrant.

Rosa 'La France'

Flowers double, slightly nodding, silvery rose pink, strongly fragrant. 'Madame Falcot' _ unknown.

Rosa 'Lady Huntingfield'

Dense shrub. Flowers large, double, deep apricot-yellow.

Rosa 'Ladymann'

Flowers large, semi-double, pink. 'Lorraine Lee'_ unknown, raised by Alister Clark, Australia, 1940.

Rosa 'Ladymary Fitzwilliam'

Flowers double, deep pink in bud, opening flesh pink.

Rosa 'Ladyvera'

Flowers deep bright pink to silvery pink, double, slightly fragrant. 'Royal Highness' _ 'Christian Dior', raised by William Smith of Vic, 1976.

Rosa 'Lubra'

Flowers deep crimson, double, fragrant. Hybrid Tea. 'Blackboy' seedling _ 'Ophelia' climbing form, raised Mrs h. Fitzhardinge, nsw, 1938.

Rosa 'Marjorie Atherton'

Flowers deep yellow, double. Featured in the Australian Rose Stamp Series in 1983. 'Mount Shasta'_ Peace, raised in Australia by Ron Bell.

Rosa 'Megan Louise'

Flowers double, 2-toned pink. 'Red Lion'_'Silver Lining', raised by Eric Welsh of NSWand named after his daughter, 1983.

Rosa 'Mister Lincoln'

Flowers large, double, dark velvety red, fragrant.

Rosa 'Mount Shasta'

Flowers large, with pointed buds, double, pure white.

Rosa 'Mrs Albert Nash'

Flowers medium to large, flat, velvety red with prominent yellow stamens. Similar to 'Blackboy'.

Rosa 'Mrs Frank Danks'

Vigorous shrub sometimes used as a climber. Flowers large, semi-double, lilac pink, fragrant.

Rosa 'Mrs Herbert Stevens'

Flowers double, high-pointed, pure white.

Rosa 'Ophelia'

Flowers double, salmon pink to flesh, with lemon tints.

Rosa 'Our Rosamond'

Flowers silvery pink, double with darker flushes. Long-stemmed. Raised in Australia by Ron Bell, 1983.

Rosa 'Pakeha'

Flowers white to lemon-cream, fragrant. Raised in Australia by George Dawson, 1980.

Rosa 'Papameilland'

Flowers double, crimson, fragrant.

Rosa 'Pascali'

Flowers large, double, high-pointed, strongly fragrant.

Rosa 'President Herbert Hoover'

Flowers double, pink with orange and yellow tints.

Rosa 'Queen Elizabeth'

Vigorous upright bush. Flowers in clusters, double, pink.

Rosa 'Rae Dungan'

Flowers with cream-yellow centre and carmine flush, fragrant. Raised in Australia by George Dawson, 1971.

Rosa 'Red Nella'

Flowers pale red, double. 'Alec's Red' _ 'Camp David'. Raised by Bill Allender, nsw, 1991. Name is the reverse of the originator's surname.

Rosa 'Restless'

Broad, vigorous bush. Flowers semi-double to double, cupped, velvety red.

Rosa 'Rod Stillman'

Flowers pale pink, double, fragrant. 'Editor McFarland' _ 'Ophelia', raised Robert Hamilton,Vic, 1948.

Rosa 'Sharon Louise'

Flowers pale or creamy pink, double, fragrant. 'Queen Elizabeth'_ 'Virgo', raised by Mrs Marguerite Parks, nsw, 1968.

Rosa 'Silver Jubilee'

Flowers large, double, high-pointed, silvery pink with petals yellow at the base.

Rosa 'Silver Lining'

Flowers large, silvery pink with paler and darker tints.

Rosa 'Sunny South'

Flowers semi-double, cupped, soft to darker pink on a yellow ground.Vigorous shrub popular in the 1920s and 30s as a hedge.

Rosa 'Superstar'

Flowers double, high-pointed, orange-vermillion.

Rosa 'The Australian Bicentennial Rose'

Flowers bright red, double, fragrant. ('Daily Sketch' _ unknown) _ 'Red Planet'. Raised in Australia by Ron Bell.

Rosa 'Warrawee'

Flowers pale pink, double, fragrant. 'Padre' _ 'Rev. F. Page-Roberts', raised Mrs h. Fitzhardinge, nsw, 1935.

Rosa 'White Wings'

Flowers large, single, papery white with purplish brown anthers, fragrant.


The modern Miniatures originated in the 1920s from the China rose 'Roulettii' (a form of R. chinensis 'Minima') although they have been grown since the 19th century. A greater range of colours and habits has been obtained by crossing with Floribundas, and singles by crossing with R. wichuraiana. This group intergrades with landscape, patio, groundcover and climbing roses. In Australia about 500 cultivars have been listed and about 200 are currently available, but they have not achieved the popularity here that they have, for example, in the USA. Falk Hannemann of Minirose Nsy, Box Hill, Vic, has bred a number of new cultivars (see below) and in New Zealand, Sam McGredy is an active breeder. So-called Party roses which flower when as small as 6-7 cm and ultimately grow to only 15-20 cm, bred by Poulsen Roses of Denmark, are a recent introduction to Australia.

Rosa 'Baby Darling'

To about 25 cm tall. Flowers small, apricot to orange-pink, semidouble. 'Little Darling' _ 'Magic Wand', raised r.s. Moore, 1964.

Rosa 'Fairy Floss'

Spreading shrub with attractive hips. Flowers small, white, in large clusters, fragrant. Raised by f. Hannemann, Box Hill,Vic, 1992.

Rosa 'Jamie Alexander'

Vigorous shrub to about 70 cm tall with foliage bronze at first. Flowers red, over a long season. Raised by f. Hannemann, Box Hill, Vic, 1995.

Rosa 'Lavender Jewel'

Flowers in clusters, opening flat, double, lavender-pink.

Rosa 'Little Mike'

Dwarf shrub. Flowers double, pointed, extremely small, dark red.

Rosa 'Mariandl 92'

Compact shrub to about 80 cm tall. Flowers semi-double, flat, slightly quilled at the base, petals red, silvery below and with a distinctive yellow central eye. Raised by f. Hannemann, Box Hill,Vic, 1992.

Rosa 'Orange Honey'

Shrub to 50 cm or so tall. Flowers orange-yellow to bright orange.

Rosa 'Red Carousel'

Flowers reddish pink, double, slightly fragrant. Sport of 'Magic Carousel' raised by Heather Rumsey, nsw, 1984.

Rosa 'Ruby Treasure'

Spreading bush with nearly black buds. Flowers double, deep dark red. Raised by f. Hannemann, Box Hill,Vic, 1990.

Rosa 'Sarah'

Shrub with glossy foliage. Flowers 1 per stem, pale apricot and cream, sometimes with yellow shades appearing in the hot weather. Raised by f. Hannemann, Box Hill,Vic, 1991.

Rosa 'Simplex'

Semi-prostrate shrub. Flowers single, white, tinged pink and green, with prominent yellow stamens.

Rosa 'Sugar Plum Fairy'

Spreading shrub to 30 cm tall used as a groundcover. Flowers profuse, small, single, lilac with prominent yellow stamens and a spicy scent over a long season. Raised by f. Hannemann, Box Hill,Vic, 1992.

Rosa 'Sweetcorn'

Flowers golden yellow, paling to pure white, over a long season. Raised by f. Hannemann, Box Hill,Vic, 1991.

Rosa 'Traceywickham'

Flowers bright yellow, edged brick red, fragrant. Raised by Eric Welsh of nsw, 1984. Commemorating the Olympic swimmer.

Rosa 'Wee Beth'

Flowers salmon pink, semi-double, with prominent stamens and slightly mossy buds. Fragrant. Raised by Eric Welsh of NSWand named after his daughter, 1984.

Moss roses

This is the name given to roses that have arisen as sports with the sepals, hip and flower stalk having moss-like growth. They have been derived from a mossy sport of R. ×centifolia (pre-1720), and a mossy sport of the Autumn Damask, R. damascena (first recorded in 1835). In the late 19th century breeding merged the two lines.

Rosa 'Alfred De Dalmas'

Flowers semi-double, cream-pink, fragrant, long-flowering, the moss colouring pink or red. Parentage unknown, raised Portemer, France,1855.

Rosa 'Crested Jewel'

Flowers pink, semi-double, with prominent yellow stamens. Cross of Miniature 'Little Darling' with 'Chapeau de NapolÃĩon', raised by r. Moore, usa, 1971.

Rosa 'Deuil De Paul Fontaine'

Thorny shrub. Flowers red to blackish purple. Parentage unknown, raised Fontaine, France, 1873.

Rosa 'Goethe'

Flowers single, deep magenta with yellow stamens,moss reddish. Parentage unknown, raised p. Lambert, Germany, 1911.

Rosa 'Golden Moss'

Flowers pale yellow, cupped, fragrant. 'Frau Karl Druschki' _ ('Souvenir de Claudius Pernet'_'Blanche Moreau'), raised Pedro Dot, Spain,1932.

Rosa 'Henri Martin'

Flowers in clusters, crimson, fragrant and with little moss. Parentage unknown, raised Laffay, France, 1863.

Rosa 'James Mitchell'

Flowers double, bright pink, fragrant with little moss. Parentage unknown, raised Verdier, France, 1861.

Rosa 'Louis Gimard'

Flowers double, flat, pale pink with darker centre and purplish moss. Parentage unknown, raised Pernet pÃĬre, France, 1877.

Rosa 'Marie De Blois'

Flowers pink, strongly fragrant with prolific red moss. Parentage unknown, Robert, France, 1852.

Rosa 'Nuits De Young'

Flowers small, double, maroon with yellow boss of stamens. Parentage unknown, raised Laffay, France, 1845.

Rosa 'Quatre Saisons Blanche Mousseuse'

A name sometimes applied to a Damask rose. Flowers white with a hint of pale pink, double, strongly scented and with a dense brownish green moss. A moss sport of 'Quatre Saisons' selected by Laffay, France. ['Quatre Saisons Blanc Mousseux']

Rosa 'Salet'

Flowers deep pink, double, slightly mossy. Parentage unknown, raised Lacharme, France, 1854.

Rosa 'Soupert Et Notting'

Flowers double, deep red, quartered. Parentage unknown, raised Pernet pÃĬre, France, 1874.

Rosa 'William Lobb'

Flowers prolific, in clusters, large, semi-double, magenta with purplish grey shading, slightly paler below, fragrant. Parentage unknown, Laffay, France, 1855.


These are hybrids derived from a cross between R. moschata and 'Parson's Pink' ('Old Blush') which produced the cultivar, 'Champney's Pink Cluster'. The cross was performed by John Champney from Charleston, S Carolina, USA, in 1802 and seed of the new cultivar was raised by Philippe Noisette, also of Charleston, to produce some Noisette cultivars. Other seedlings have been raised since and crosses made with 'Park's Yellow China' to produce the Tea Noisette roses. They added new colour, especially yellow, to the climbing roses of their day.

Rosa 'Alister Stella Gray'

Flowers double, yellow with darker centres, strongly scented. Parentage unknown, raised a.h. Gray, uk, 1894.

Rosa 'Blush Noisette'

Flowers in large clusters, semi-double, lilac pink, with prominent yellow stamens. 'Champney's Pink Cluster' seedling selected by Noisette, usa, c. 1825.

Rosa 'Champney'

S pink cluster' Possibly the first Noisette, with clusters of semi-double to double flowers of pale pink suffused with deeper pink and highly scented. R. chinensis _ r. moschata, raised Champney, usa, c. 1802.

Rosa 'Claire Jacquier'

Flowers in large clusters, double, deep yellow, paling with age, pleasantly scented. Possibly r. multiflora _ a Tea rose, raised a. Bernaix, France, 1888.

Rosa 'Cloth Of Gold'

Flowers double, pale yellow with darker centres, fragrant. A seedling selection of 'Lamarque' by Coquereau, France, 1843.

Rosa 'Duchesse D'Auerstädt'

Flowers double, quartered, apricot, buff and gold, fragrant. A sport of 'Rêve d'Or' selected by A. Bernaix, France, 1888.

Rosa 'Lamarque'

Flowers pure white, fragrant. 'Blush Noisette' _ 'Park's Yellow China', raised MarÃĩchal, France, 1830.

Rosa 'Milkmaid'

Flowers double, cream and yellow, highly fragrant. 'CrÃĩpuscule' _ probably r. wichuraiana or hybrid r. luciae. Raised by Alister Clark, Australia.

Rosa 'William Allen Richardson'

Foliage coppery. Flowers prolific, double, buff to apricot. Sport of 'rÃĻve d'Or' raised by Ducher, France, 1878.

Patio roses

A new group of roses, mostly either low-growing or spreading bushes such as 'Bonica', and suitable for pots; intergrading with Floribunds.

A 'CECILIA' Shrub to about 50 cm tall. Flowers to about 6 cm wide, single to semidouble, in shades of apricot, pink, cream and yellow, fading to white and with prominent yellow stamens. Raised by F. Hannemann, Box Hill, Vic, 1991.

Rosa 'Bella Rosa'

Compact, glossy-leaved shrub to about 60 cm tall. Flowers bright pink over a long season. Raised by Kordes, Germany, 1981.

Rosa 'Bonica'

Shrub with spreading, arching stems. Flowers pink, double. Hips prolific, orange. Raised by Meilland in 1982 (R. sempervirens × 'Mademoiselle Marthe Carron') × 'Picasso'.

Polyantha pompons

This group is based on first generation hybrids of R. multiflora which were raised at Lyons in the 1870s. One of the earliest cultivars, 'Mignonette', shows a China rose influence but a Tea rose influence is also apparent. The plants are dwarf bushes with small leaves and produce large clusters of small, mostly scentless flowers with repeat flowering. Some of these roses produced the cluster-flowered Floribundas when hybridised with Hybrid Teas.

Rosa 'Babe'

Flowers pale pink with darker colouring, semi-double. Bred by Miers in 1935 but released by Harry Hazlewood, nsw.

Rosa 'Baby Faurax'

Flowers deep maroon, the petals paling to white at the base.a dwarf. Parentage unknown. Raised Lille, France, 1924.

Rosa 'Claret Cup'

Flowers in prolific clusters, single, dark red with a white centre. 'Spring Song' _ 'Eutin', raised Frank Riethmuller, nsw, 1962.

Rosa 'Friends Of Benalla Gardens'

Flowers cream to blush, double, fragrant. Raised by Philip Sutherland, Benalla, Vic, 1996. A fundraising introduction to assist the renovation of the Benalla Bot. Gds rose garden.

Rosa 'Gay Vista'

Flowers clustered, deep pink with white centre. Raised Frank Riethmuller, nsw, 1957.

Rosa 'Honeyflow'

Flowers clustered, white to pale pink, slightly fragrant. 'Gartendirektor Otto Linne' _ 'Spring Song', raised Frank Riethmuller, nsw, 1957.

Rosa 'Spring Song'

Flowers pink, old-fashioned. Raised Frank Riethmuller, nsw. 'Gartendirektor Otto Linne' hybrid, 1955.

Polyantha roses

Originally perpetually flowering dwarf forms of R. multiflora, later hybrid Polyanthas were produced as crosses with Hybrid Teas.

Rosa 'Babyalberic'

Flowers small, double, cream to yellow, recurrent, fragrant. Raised by Chaplin Bros, uk, 1932.

Rosa 'Cousin Essie'

Spreading shrub to 2 m tall. Flowers in loose clusters, semi-double, creamy white. Seedling of 'Honeyflow' raised by m. Robertson, Australia, 1989.

Rosa 'Echo'

Shrub without prickles. Flowers in clusters, semi-double, pink, salmon or white. Sport of 'TausendschÃĦn'. Raised by Lambert, Germany, 1914.

Rosa 'Ellen Poulsen'

Flowers in clusters, semi-double, bright pink. 'Dorothy Perkins' _ 'Madame Norbert Leuavasseur'. Raised by Poulsen, Denmark, 1911.

Rosa 'Gartendirektor Otto Linne'

Spreading shrub. Flowers in large clusters, rose to carmine. 'Robin Hood' _ 'Rudolph Kluis'. Raised by Lambert, Germany, 1934.

Rosa 'Gay Vista'

Flowers in large clusters, single, bright pink with a white centre. Raised by Frank Reithmuller, Australia, 1957.

Rosa 'Little White Pet'

Flowers double, flat, creamy white, fragrant. Sport of 'fÃĩlicitÃĩ PerpÃĩtue'. Raised by Henderson, usa, 1879.

Rosa 'Mevrouw Nathalie Nypels'

Flowers semi-double, rose pink with a few orange and yellow tints, fragrant. 'Orleans Rose' _ r. foetida 'Bicolor' seedling. Raised by Leenders, Holland, 1919.

Rosa 'Miss Edith Cavell'

Upright shrub. Flowers semi-double, bright to dark red. 'Orleans Rose' sport. Raised by de Ruiter, Holland, 1917.

Rosa 'Mrs R.m. Finch'

Flowers in clusters, double, pink, fading to become pale, fragrant. Raised by r.m. Finch, Australia, 1923.

Rosa 'Spring Song'

Shrubs with arching branches and numerous small red prickles. Flowers in large clusters, double, small, bright pink. Bred from 'Gartendirektor Otto Linne' by Frank Reithmuller, Australia, 1954.

Rosa 'Suitor'

Spreading to almost prostrate shrub. Flowers small, double, pink, fading. Probably from 'Alice Amos'. Raised by Alister Clark, Australia, 1942.

Rosa 'Tarrawarra Australian'

Upright shrub. Flowers in large clusters, small, double, cream to salmon pink. Int. J. Nieuwesteeg,Australia,1991.

Rosa 'The Allies'

Shrub with small brown prickles. Flowers in clusters of 50 or more, small, double, white to pale pink. Raised by c. Heers, Australia, 1930.

Rosa 'The Fairy'

Spreading, semi-prostrate shrub with glossy dark green leaves. Flowers double, pink, sometimes pale. 'Paul Campel'_'Lady Gay'. Raised by Ann Bentall, Australia, 1932.

Portland roses

Roses based on the cultivar 'Portlandica' and named after the second Duchess of Portland. The original was a hybrid between the Autumn Damask and R. gallica 'Officinalis' and Portlands have been known since 1792. They are similar to Gallica roses and form late-flowering, compact bushes just over 1 m tall and with strong flower colours. They were crossed with Chinas to produce the forerunners of the Hybrid Perpetual.

Rosa 'Arthur De Sansal'

Flowers double, densely petalled, crimson-purple, fragrant. Parentage unknown, raised Cartier, France, 1855.

Rosa 'Comte De Chambord'

Foliage grey-green. Flowers double, quartered, deep pink, darker in the centre, strongly scented. 'Baronne PrÃĩvost' _ 'Portlandica', raised Moreau-Robert, France, 1863.

Rosa 'Delambre'

Flowers double, dark pink. Parentage unknown, raised Moreau-Robert, France, 1863.

Rosa 'Duchess Of Portland'

Flowers semi-double, cupped, red to maroon, fragrant, c. 1770.

Rosa 'Jacques Cartier'

Flowers deep pink, fading towards petal margins, fragrant. Parentage unknown, raised Moreau-Robert, France, 1868.

Rosa 'Madame Knorr'

Flowers semi-double, bright pink, fragrant. Parentage unknown, raised Verdier, France, 1855.

Rosa 'Marie De Saint Jean'

Flowers double, pure white, strongly fragrant. Parentage unknown, raised Damaizin, France, 1869.

Rosa 'Rose Du Roi À Fleurs Pourpres'

Reddish purple flowers over a long flowering season. Probably a sport of 'Rose du Roi', raised in 1819.

Rosa 'Rose Du Roi'

Flowers double, red, mottled purple, strongly scented. 'Portlandica' _ r. gallica var. officinalis. Raised Lelier, France, 1815. Sometimes classified as a Hybrid Perpetual.


The term rambler generally applies to plants with a more lax habit than climbers. They need some form of support and generally produce large clusters of small flowers in midsummer only. They originated as descendants of R. sempervirens, known as Sempervirens Ramblers (SR), prior to the introduction of Multiflora Ramblers (M), crosses of R. multiflora with Hybrid Perpetuals and Hybrid Teas from China in the late 18th century, and Wichuraiana Ramblers (W), descendants of R. wichuraiana from Japan, in the late 19th century. A wide range of cultivars was bred from the latter two species, reaching a height of popularity in Edwardian times. For example the Wichuraianas are large- or small-flowered, the large ones raised mostly in France, c. 1900-20, the smaller ones mostly crosses between R. wichuraiana and Hybrid Perpetuals raised by Jackson Perkins and M.H.Walsh in the USA.

Rosa 'Albertine'

(w) Leaves glossy and copper-coloured at first, with hooked thorns. Flowers prolific, pink, yellow at the base, paling with age, strongly scented. R. wichuraiana _ 'Mrs Arthur Robert Waddell', raised by Barbier, France,1921.

Rosa 'American Pillar'

(w) Flowers in large clusters, single, pinkish red at first, paling to deep pink with whitish centre. (r. wichuraiana _ r. setigera) _ 'Red Letter Day', raised by van Fleet, usa, 1909.

Rosa 'Bloomfield Courage'

(w) Stems lax and with few prickles. Leaves dark green and glossy. Flowers in clusters, single, small, red with a yellow centre. Raised by Thomas, usa, 1925.

Rosa 'Blush Rambler'

(m) Stems almost thornless. Flowers in large tumbling clusters, pink. 'Crimson Rambler' _ 'The Garland', raised by b.r. Cant, uk, 1903.

Rosa 'Dorothy Perkins'

(w) Flowers in large clusters, pink, the occasional one white, fragrant. R. wichuraiana _ 'Gabriel Luizet', raised by Jackson and Perkins, usa, 1902.

Rosa 'Ednawalling'

Flowers small in large erect clusters, semi-double, cream with green and pink tints. Hips small, globular. Pre-1940, possibly raised in Australia by Alister Clark. Not to be confused with a bright pink Polyantha of the same name originating in NSWand otherwise known as 'Bert Mulley'.

Rosa 'Excelsa'

(w) Foliage dark green. Flowers small, crimson, in prolific clusters. Parentage unknown, raised Walsh, usa, 1909.

Rosa 'Gladsome'

(m) Leaves pale to grey-green. Flowers in large clusters, small, single, pale pink with a white centre. Hips small, ovoid. Alister Clark, Australia, 1937.

Rosa 'Goldfinch'

(m) Flowers deep to pale yellow, cupped, sometimes fading to cream. 'hÃĩlÃĬne' _ unknown, raised w. Paul,uk,1907.

Rosa 'Kew Rambler'

(sr) Leaves grey-green. Flowers produced in dense clusters, small, single, pink with a white eye. R. soulieana _ 'Hiawatha', raised Royal Bot. Gds, Kew, 1912.

Rosa 'Kiftsgate'

(sr) Rambler or climber with large glossy leaflets coppery at first. Flowers in summer, in large, dense, hanging clusters, each flower cream with golden stamens. Raised by Murrell, uk, 1954, as a sport of r. filipes.

Rosa 'Laure Davoust'

(m) Flowers in clusters, small, double, cupped, pale pink, fragrant. Raised Laffay, France, 1834.

Rosa 'Mermaid'

(sr) Leaves deep green, semi-evergreen; wood maroon, thorny. Flowers single, yellow with brown stamens, produced over a long period, highly fragrant. R. bracteata _ double yellow Tea rose,w. Paul, uk, 1917.

Rosa 'New Dawn'

(w) Flowers semi-double, soft pink, produced repeatedly through the season, fragrant. Sport of 'Doctor van Fleet', raised by Somerset Rose Company, usa, 1930.

Rosa 'Rambling Rector'

(m) Vigorous grower. Leaves grey-green. Flowers in large clusters, small, semi-double, white. Origin unknown, probably uk, pre-1912.

Rosa 'Sanders'

White rambler' (w) Flowers prolific, double, in dense clusters, rarely solitary. Parentage unknown, raised Sanders and Sons, uk, 1912.

Rosa 'Summer Snow'

(m) Stems without prickles, leaves pale green, slightly glossy. Flowers in clusters, medium, semi-double, recurrent, white. Raised Cocteau, int. Perkins, usa, 1936. Notable because the climbing form was raised first and followed by a bush form.

Rosa 'Tea Rambler'

(m) Flowers pale pink, double, fragrant. 'Crimson Rambler' _ a Tea rose, raised by w. Paul,uk,1904.

Rosa 'Veilchenblau'

(m) Flowers in large clusters, semi-double, lavender-purple, sometimes flecked white, particularly in the centre, fading with age, fragrant. 'Crimson Rambler' _ unknown seedling, raised by j.c. Schmidt, Germany, 1909.

Rosa 'Wedding Day'

(sr) Stems rampant and with few thorns. Flowers in large clusters, white, single, with yellow stamens. R. sinowilsonii _ unknown, raised Stern, uk, 1950.


Seedling variants or crosses with R. rugosa in the parentage. R. rugosa is a hardy species from northern Japan and Siberia. Thorny plants with scented flowers.

Rosa 'Belle Poitevine'

Flowers large, double, pale magenta. Parentage unknown, raised Bruant, France,1894.

Rosa 'Conrad Ferdinand Meyer'

Stems thick, with large thorns. Flowers large, pink, strongly scented. R. rugosa hybrid × 'Gloire de Dijon', raised F. Müller, Germany, 1899.

Rosa 'Delicata'

Flowers large, semi-double, pale pink to lilac pink, fragrant. Hips large, globular. Raised Cooling, uk, 1898.

Rosa 'F.j. Grootendorst'

Flowers double, crimson, petal edges fringed and carnationlike over a long flowering season. R. rugosa ? 'Rubra' _ 'Nobert Lavasseur', raised De Goey, Holland, 1918.

Rosa 'Fimbriata'

Flowers small and carnation-like, with petals white, suffused pale pink and with fringed edges. R. rugosa _ 'Madame Alfred CarriÃĬre', raised Morlet, France, 1891.

Rosa 'Lily Freeman'

Flowers pink. Raised by Ian Huxley,Vic, and released in 1996.

Rosa 'Madame Georges Bruant'

Dense, thorny bush. Flowers semi-double, cream, fragrant. R. rugosa _ 'Sombreuil', raised by Bruant, France, 1887.

Rosa 'Martin Frobisher'

The flowers double, pale pink, fragrant. A seedling of 'Schneezwerg' selected by the Department of Agriculture, Canada in, 1968. Particularly cold-resistant.

Rosa 'Mrs Anthonywaterer'

Stems thorny. Flowers dark crimson, semi-double, prolific, fragrant. R. rugosa _'gÃĩnÃĩral Jacqueminot', raised by Waterer, uk,1898.

Rosa 'Pink Grootendorst'

Flowers pale pink, sometimes reverting to red like the parent. A sport of 'f.j. Grootendorst' selected by Grootendorst, Holland, 1923.

Rosa 'Rose À Parfum De L'

Hay' Flowers double, cherry red to purple, strongly fragrant. Raised Gravereaux, France, 1901.

Rosa 'Roseraie De L'

Hay' Flowers semi-double, more or less flat, deep magenta-purple, strongly scented. R. rugosa hybrid sport of unknown origin selected by Cochet- Cochet, France, 1901.

Rosa 'Sarah Van Fleet'

Thorny bush. Flowers prolific, semi-double, pink. R. rugosa _ 'My Maryland', raised by van Fleet, usa, 1926.

Rosa 'Vanguard'

Flowers semi-double, salmon pink, highly scented. (r. wichuraiana _ r. rugosa 'Alba') _ 'Eldorado', raised by Stevens, usa, 1932.

Tea roses

There are several Tea rose groups. Pink Tea roses resulted from the cross of the Bourbon Rose with 'Hume's Blush China' (which probably has R. gigantea as an ancestor, giving the crosses a Tea scent). Further breeding with 'Park's Yellow' has produced Tea Noisettes and a range of yellow and apricot roses. They are generally climbers or small bushes with repeat flowering. The shoots of these roses have a few red prickles and often purplish leaves. They do well in the warm climates of the Mediterranean, California and Australia. Tea roses, when crossed with Hybrid Perpetuals, produced the Hybrid Teas.

Rosa 'Adam'

Bush or climbing shrub. Flowers large, double, often quartered, buff, amber and apricot, deeper pink shades in the centre. The first Tea rose, raised 1833 and int. 1835 and named after its English nurseryman and originator. Parentage unknown.

Rosa 'Archiduc Joseph'

Shrub or climber. Flowers flat, double, purple-pink with a blush centre.a seedling selection of 'Madame Lombard' raised by Narbonnand, France.

Rosa 'Devoniensis'

Flowers large, double, long-flowering, creamy white with a pink centre, strongly scented. 'Smith's Yellow'_'Park's Yellow China'. Raised by Foster, 1838.

Rosa 'Duchesse De Brabant'

Large shrub. Flowers double, cupped, pale to dark pink, fragrant. Raised BernÃĬde, France, in 1857.

Rosa 'Francis Dubreuil'

Flowers large, double, cupped, dark velvet red. Raised Dubreuil, France, 1894.

Rosa 'Gloire De Dijon'

A climbing Tea. Flowers double, large, buff-apricot to pink, strongly fragrant. Raised by Jacotot, France, 1853.

Rosa 'Lady Hillingdon'

Flowers apricot yellow. A hybrid whose recorded but unlikely parents are 'Papa Gontier' _ 'Madame Hoste', raised by Lowe and Shawyer, uk, in 1910.

Rosa 'Madame Bravy'

Flowers large and creamy white, suffused with darker shades. Raised by Guillot pÃĬre, France, 1846.

Rosa 'Maman Cochet'

Flowers large, double, flesh pink to salmon, fragrant. 'Marie van Houtte' _ 'Madame Lombard'. Raised by Cochet, France,1893.

Rosa 'Marie Van Houtte'

Spreading shrub. Flowers cream suffused with pink and darker at the base, fragrant. A hybrid, 'Madame de Taras' _ 'Madame Falcot', raised by Ducher, France, 1871.

Rosa 'Molly Sharman-crawford'

Plant without prickles. Flowers double, white to greenish white, fragrant. Raised by a. Dickson, n Ireland, 1908.

Rosa 'Monsieur Tillier'

Flowers double, rosy pink to salmon and carmine, fragrant. Raised by Bernaix, France, 1891.

Rosa 'Papa Gontier'

Dense shrub. Flowers semi-double, petals pink, carmine below. Raised Nabonnand, France, 1883.

Rosa 'Penelope'

Flowers double, dark red with cream, sometimes yellow, fragrant. Raised by John Williams of Qld. Another rose, bred by Pemberton in 1924, is also known under this name.

Rosa 'Étoile De Lyon'

Dense shrub. Flowers erratic, double, golden, fragrant. Raised p. Guillot, France, 1881.

kingdom Plantae
phylum   Tracheophyta
class    Magnoliopsida
superorder     Rosanae
order      Rosales
family       Rosaceae
Higher taxa
Subordinate taxa
species         Rosa ×alba L.
species         Rosa arkansana Porter
species         Rosa arvensis Huds.
species         Rosa banksiae Aiton
species         Rosa blanda Aiton
species         Rosa bracteata Wendl.
species         Rosa canina L.
species         Rosa ×centifolia L.
species         Rosa chinensis Jacq.
species         Rosa ×damascena Mill.
species         Rosa eglanteria L.
species         Rosa fedtschenkoana Reg.
species         Rosa foetida Herrm.
species         Rosa foliolosa Torr. & A.Gray
species         Rosa gallica L.
species         Rosa gigantea Collett ex Crép.
species         Rosa glauca Pourr.
species         Rosa ×hardii Cels.
species         Rosa laevigata Michx.
species         Rosa moschata Herrm.
species         Rosa moyesii Hemsl. & Wils.
species         Rosa multiflora Murr.
species         Rosa nitida Willd.
species         Rosa pendulina L.
species         Rosa pimpinellifolia L.
species         Rosa pisocarpa A.Gray
species         Rosa primula Boulenger
species         Rosa roxburghii Tratt.
species         Rosa rubiginosa L.
species         Rosa rubrifolia Vill.
species         Rosa rugosa Thunb.
species         Rosa setigera Michx.
species         Rosa stellata Wooton
species         Rosa sweginzowii Koehne
species         Rosa villosa L.
species         Rosa virginiana Herrm.
species         Rosa watsoniana Crépin
species         Rosa webbiana Royle
species         Rosa wichuraiana Crépin
species         Rosa willmottiae
species         Rosa woodsii Lindl.
species         Rosa xanthina Lindl.