Annual herbs or subshrubs, often with square stems. Leaves opposite,simple, entire or serrate, free or sometimes basally fused; stipules absent. Inflorescence a terminal or axillary raceme, or rarely single and axillary. Nectar disc present. Flowers bisexual, bracts absent. Sepals 5, usually fused, rarely free. Corolla 2-lipped, the lower lip larger than erect upper lip, glandular hairs on lower surface of corolla. Petals (2-)4-5, fused. Stamens (2-)4(-5), fused to and alternating with perianth, the lower stamens usually different to the upper, either zig-zag, curved, or longer, with a projection, or reduced, 2 staminodes present in some Lindernia, anthers dehiscing via longitudinal slits. Ovary superior, carpels 2, fused, style 1, simple, apical. Stigma lobes 2, sensitive. Fruit a septicidal capsule or septifragal or sometimes poricidal. Seeds many, small.

Previously included in Scrophulariaceae. This treatment follows Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards, Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

Linderniaceae are usually herbs with opposite leaves, square stems, and corolla lower lip larger than erect upper lip, flowers with a sensitive stigma and the lower stamens usually very different from the upper, either Z-shaped, or long and curved, with a projection, or very much reduced (Stevens 2001 onwards).

About 17 genera and 255 species, pantropical to warm temperate regions, especially America; 3 genera in Australia.

Rarely cultivated species include: The Australian native, Artanema fimbriatum (Graham) D. Don, of NSW and Qld, is a perennial herb with white or violet flowers.

Watson & Dallwitz (1992 onwards); Mabberley (2017).

Created by: Val Stajsic

Updated by: Val Stajsic, April 2018

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kingdom Plantae
phylum   Tracheophyta
class    Magnoliopsida
superorder     Asteranae
order      Lamiales
Higher taxa
Subordinate taxa
genus        Torenia L.